Peri-implant diseases are the pathological inflammatory changes that occur in tissue surrounding a load bearing implant. It is one of the most common complications in orofacial implantology. The implant design, diameter, location, degree of roughness, excessive mechanical load, tissue status surrounding implant and improper surgical placements are responsible for occurence of perimplant diseases. Also, Gram negative anaerobes play a key role in this disease. Two terms are described in peri-implant diseases: 1) Peri-implant mucositis - a condition in which the inflammatory changes are limited to the mucosa surrounding the implant surface. If treated properly, this condition is reversible. 2) Peri-implantitis - includes bone loss leading to reduced bone support for the implant along with presence of peri-implant mucositis. This condition is irreversible. The management of these conditions is essential for maintenance of oral health in patients with implant-retained prosthesis. Various treatment modalities are available: infection control, implant surface detoxification and alveolar bone regeneration. This book sheds light on different treatment choices for peri-implant deseases.
Prosthetic rehabilitation of missing structures in the oral and maxillofacial region in accordance with Devan's principle of preservation has been the ultimate challenge to the prosthodontist.Over the years traditional methods of tooth replacement are slowly and steadily being replaced by newer modalities like implants.High success rate of implants and the advantages that go with them have earned them the name of the third dentition.Increasing functional and aesthetic challenges have prompted implantologists to reduce the treatment period by loading the implant immediately at the time of placement.The protocol has yielded encouraging results although they still need to match the time tested II stage procedure by way of success over an extended period of time..The immediate loading of dental implants clearly represents a change in dogma.To load the implant immediately or not to load is indeed the question today and the rationale and principles that go with the protocol warrant discussion.
The present study is an attempt to find out the safety and acceptability of single dose oral therapy of Albendazole with DEC in Microfilaraemic patients and to assess the toxicological profile of standard dose and high dose regimen of Albendazole with DEC when administered by oral route to albino mice. It was concluded that single high dose was safe & acceptable to the majority of the study participants. The responses from male compared to female subjects was good. Most of the subjects preferred to take medicine in less frequent dose. Also most of them refused to take the chewable one. From this study, it was also found to be a more effective regimen in reducing microfilaria and/or adult worm load, which was useful for maintaining persistent amicrofilaraemic state for a prolonged period. This regimen when applied to the global programme can effectively sustain the transmission blocking potential of the drug and thereby reducing the time required for elimination of the infection.
This book outlines the current epidemiology of HIV associated oral lesions globally and stratifies countries falling under all six WHO regional offices according to high, medium and low prevalence of oral manifestations of HIV infection. Currently there are many knowledge gaps in the prevalence of oral lesions related to HIV infection from different regions as majority of the countries have no database or referral system for these kind of lesions. This is an obstacle to the implementation of various HIV prevention and health promotion programmes as oral lesions are strong indicators of HIV infection, invariably often are the first lesions to be identified and reportedly, are markers of disease progression and parallel the changes in various laboratory markers like CD4 cell count and HIV viral load. Having such a database can prove to be very pivotal in our fight against AIDS because of its diagnostic and prognostic significance. This work is amongst some early studies to show the prevalence globally across countries falling under all six WHO regional offices.
As the outer cover of teeth, enamel is the hardest,stiffest and one of the most durable load-bearingtissues of the human body. Material scientists areinterested in the structure and function of thenatural material. How does nature design the materialto meet its functional needs? While dentalpractitioners are keen to know the properties ofenamel and compare it with different dentalmaterials. What kind of dental materials can bestsimulate enamel as a restoration in the oral cavity?The content of this book will attempt to provideanswers or indications to the above questions. Bearing the assumption that the hierarchicalmicrostructure and trace protein remnants in enamelregulate the mechanical behaviour of the naturalbiocomposite in mind, the nano-mechanical propertiesof human enamel was thoroughly explored by themost-advanced nanoindentation, SEM and vibrationalspectroscopy technologies. The outcomes successfullyinterpreted how microstructural and compositionalfeatures of enamel regulate its mechanical behaviour.The new information and analytical methods providedby the book will be of benefit to dental materialdevelopment, evaluation and selection.
Incretins are hormones released from the gut in response to nutrient ingestion that potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The search for incretins was prompted by the observation that administration of an oral glucose load leads to a much greater stimulation of insulin response than that obtained when glucose is infused intravenously to give identical blood glucose levels . This difference between the two ways of glucose administration has been attributed to incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose- dependant insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), involved in the disposal of absorbed glucose, through the stimulation of insulin secretion.Indeed, GLP-1R agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors have been widely and successfully used therapeutic agents in the management of type 2 diabetes.
New post and core systems such as glass fiber posts with composite resin cores, are continuously developed and praised for their esthetics and similar elastic modulus to dentin. In this study, three groups of post and core systems (cast post and core, glass fiber and prefabricated metal posts) are tested for resistance to fracture under a continuous load and cyclic loading under similar oral conditions. Zinc phosphate and Panavia 21 were used as cements of choice because of their long history of reliability and dependability. Marginal gap measurements were acquired using a high powered microscope before and after testing in the cyclic loading groups. For the load to failure groups, a constant but slow speed load was applied to the teeth till failure. The two hypotheses for this study were: the glass fiber group would have less marginal gap opening on the lingual after cyclic loading than the other groups. The second hypothesis was the cast post and core would have a higher load to failure than the other groups in this study.
Type 2 diabetes has been a 61% increase in incidence between 1990 and 2001 in the USA. There are 1.5 million new cases per year. Poorly-controlled diabetes that is characterized with increased glycated hemoglobin, HbA1c8%, is increasing world wide, and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects a substantial number of pregnancies, which complicates 7% of all pregnancies. Substantial evidence from studies support the dietary fiber and types of carbohydrate (glycemic index and load) impact on postprandial glucose and insulin responses. High carbohydrate intake recommended in diabetes, resulting in suboptimal glycemic control and lipoprotein profile, gradually increasing insulin and/or oral hypoglycemic medication requirement and eventually weight gain. Therefore, we investigated the role of low glycemic index-glycemic load diet with and without extra fiber (wheat bran) on blood glucose profile of insulin resistance, diabetes and GDM subjects. The diets included lower amount of carbohydrate and higher fat content than traditionally introduced diets as an alternative approach to reduce glycemic response to carbohydrate and also reducing HbA1c concentration of poor-controlled diabetes
Burning mouth syndrome is characterised by a burning-like sensation of the oral mucosal. The aetiology of this disorder is likely to reflect neurological change associated with psychological stress. Local factors are unlikely to be of aetiological relevance although associations with oral fungal carriage have been previously proposed. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of oral carriage of candidal carriage in patients with burning mouth syndrome. The study comprised a retrospective analysis of the mycological investigation of patients with burning mouth syndrome compared with individuals with other oral mucosal disorders. The frequency of carriage, and oral load of candida species were not significantly increased in patients with burning mouth syndrome. Patients with clinical signs of probable fungal infection, or xerostomia did have increased carriage of candida species. It is concluded that there is no association between burning mouth syndrome and local fungal infection. The analysis should help shed some light on Burning Mouth Syndrome,and should be especially useful to professionals in Oral Pathology and Medicine field.