In steel and construction industry, hot-rolled steel (HRS) section and cold-formed steel (CFS) section are two distinguished steel sections that are used. However, among the two steel sections, HRS is the most familiar among building contractors and engineers. The use and application of CFS sections started in the United States of America (USA) and Great Britain for decades, mainly for non-structural purposes only. Though, the use of CFS is expanding in the present era of building constructions. However, in the mid- 20th century, the structural use of CFS sections began especially for commercial and industrial building constructions. Recently, the use of CFS sections as an alternative material for roof structure keep increasing due to the quality assurance of steel structures. CFS sections are lightweight material produced by bending a flat steel sheet at room temperature into a desired shape that can withstand more load than the flat sheet itself; and are suitable for building construction owing to their high structural performance. The use of composite systems comprising of concrete and hot-rolled steel sections is well established as observed in current design codes.
The development of composites using carbon fibers as the reinforcement requires surface activated carbon fibers with a durable surface composition. In this work, sized polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon bers were modi ed by Oxy- Plasma treatment, Oxy- fluorination, and Nitric acid treatment in order to improve the interaction between carbon ber surface and matrix. The effect of different surface treatments was observed by means of contact angle, surface free energy measurement. Surface roughness were seen by the help of Scanning electron microscopy (SEM).The lower contact angle proved the surface hydrophilicity of treated carbon fiber.XPS, Zeta-potential measurements revealed changes in surface chemistry of treated carbon fibers. The higher tensile strength of activated carbon fibers gave the assurance of more load bearing capacity of carbon fibers and also the acceptability of activation process.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! The word "skyscraper" originally was a nautical term referring to a small triangular sail set above the skysail on a sailing ship. The term was first applied to buildings in the late 19th century as a result of public amazement at the tall buildings being built in Chicago and New York City. The first skyscraper was for many years thought to be the Home Insurance Building built in Chicago, Illinois in 1885. More recent evidence points to New York's Equitable Life Assurance Building built in 1870 preceding the Chicago building by 15 years and was the first office building built using a skeletal frame. The structural definition of the word skyscraper was refined later by architectural historians, based on engineering developments of the 1880s that had enabled construction of tall multi-storey buildings. This definition was based on the steel skeleton -as opposed to constructions of load-bearing masonry, which passed their practical limit in 1891 with Chicago's Monadnock Building. Philadelphia's City Hall, completed in 1901, still holds claim as the world's tallest load-bearing masonry structure at 167 m (548 ft).
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! QF-Test (the successor of qftestJUI, available since 2001) from Quality First Software is a cross-platform software tool for the GUI test automation limited to Java/Swing, SWT, Eclipse plug-ins and RCP applications, ULC, Java applets, Java Web Start and cross-browser test automation of web-based applications. QF-Test enables regression and load testing and runs on Windows and all major Unix systems. Its commercial application is primarily performed by testers and developers in the field of Quality Assurance. Since December 2008 a webtest add-on is available which allows for test automation of browser-based GUIs in addition to its Java GUI testing functionality. Its capture/replay function enables recording of tests for beginners, while modularization allows for creating large test suites in a concise arrangement. For the advanced user who requires even more control over his application, the tool offers access to internal program structures through the standard scripting languages Jython, the Java implementation of the popular Python language, and Groovy.
Jürgen Glag's book points out how to ensure professional and efficient database software development in DB2 mainframe and client/server environments. The asset of this book is that technical aspects (performance, tuning) and organizational measures (economical performance) are covered. Consequently, this book is suitable particularly for organizations that want to use DB2 in an economical and safe way. Work in various large production systems with DB2 revealed that most performance problems arise either from a certain critical transaction load onwards or for particularly large tables. Many measures can be taken in order to identify and to solve these problems during software development and not, as is often the case, only in production environment. Beyond explaining the causes for performance problems, this book also describes and explains well-proven measures to avoid such problems. The book particularly addresses those persons who are responsible for data processing and quality assurance; project leaders and project managers in the data processing area; and software and application developers. Das Buch von Glag zeigt, wie professionelle und effiziente DB-Anwendungsentwicklung im DB2-Grossrechnerbereich und Client/Server-Umfeld sichergestellt werden können. Der Vorzug des Buches ist es, dass sowohl die technischen Aspekte (Performance, Tuning) als auch organisatorische Massnahmen zur Optimierung (wirtschaftliche Performance) dargestellt werden. Damit eignet sich das Buch insbesondere für den Einsatz in Unternehmen, die DB2 kostengünstig und sicher einsetzen wollen. Bei der Arbeit in mehreren grossen produktiven DB2-Umgebungen hat sich gezeigt, dass die meisten Performance-Probleme entweder erst ab einer bestimmten kritischen Transaktionslast oder bei besonders umfangreichen Tabellengrössen auftreten. Um diese Probleme nicht erst in der Produktionsumgebung, sondern bereits während der Softwareentwicklung erkennen und lösen zu können, sind eine Reihe von Massnahmen
Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the product or service under test. Software testing also provides an objective, independent view of the software to allow the business to appreciate and understand the risks of software implementation. Test techniques include, but are not limited to, the process of executing a program or application with the intent of finding software bugs (errors or other defects). This book is your ultimate resource for Software Testing. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis, background and everything you need to know. In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Software Testing right away, covering: Software testing, Acceptance testing, Ad hoc testing, Agile testing, All-pairs testing, American Software Testing Qualifications Board, API Sanity Autotest, Association for Software Testing, Attack patterns, Augmented Reality-based testing, Australian and New Zealand Testing Board, Automated Testing Framework, Avalanche (dynamic analysis tool), Bebugging, Behavior Driven Development, Black-box testing, Block design, Boundary case, Boundary testing, Boundary-value analysis, Browser speed test, BS 7925-1, BS 7925-2, Bug bash, Build verification test, CA/EZTEST, Cause-effect graph, Centercode, Characterization test, Cloud testing, Code coverage, Code integrity, Codenomicon, Compatibility testing, Component-Based Usability Testing, Conference Room Pilot, Conformance testing, Core Security, Corner case, Daikon (system), Data-driven testing, Decision table, Decision-to-decision path, Design predicates, Development, testing, acceptance and production, DeviceAnywhere, Dry run (testing), Dynamic program analysis, Dynamic testing, Edge case, Endeavour Software Project Management, Equivalence partitioning, Error guessing, Exploratory testing, Fagan inspection, Fault injection, Financial tester, Framework for Integrated Test, Functional testing, Functionality assurance, Fuzz testing, Game testing, Google Guice, Graphical user interface testing, Hybrid testing, IBM Product Test, IBM Rational Quality Manager, IEEE 829, Independent software verification and validation, Installation testing, Integration testing, Integration Tree, International Software Testing Qualifications Board, International Software Testing Qualifications Board Certified Tester, JSystem, Keyword-driven testing, Learnability, Lightweight software test automation, Load testing, Localization testing, Manual testing, Matrix of Pain, Mauve (test suite), Metasploit Project, Microsoft Reaction Card Method (Desirability Testing), Mobile Device Testing, Mockito, Model-based testing, Modified Condition/Decision Coverage, Modularity-driven testing, Monkey test, Month of bugs, Mutation testing, National Software Testing Laboratories, NMock, Non-functional testing, Non-Regression testing, Operational Acceptance Testing, Oracle (software testing), Original Software, Oulu University Secure Programming Group, Pair Testing, Parameter validation, Partial concurrent thinking aloud, Penetration test, PlanetLab, Playtest, Portability testing, Probe effect, Program mutation, Protocol implementation conformance statement, Pseudolocalization, Software quality, Recovery testing, Regression testing, Release engineering, Retrofits in testing, Reverse semantic traceability, Risk-based testing, Robustness testing, San Francisco depot, Sandbox (software development), Sanity testing, Scalability testing, Scenario testing, Security bug, Security testing, Semantic decision table, Serenity Code Coverage...and much more This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Software Testing. It reduces the risk of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Software Testing with the objec
Unrivalled compendium on the development of gear units This book contains a complete presentation of all branches essential for the development of gear units, in particular that of cylindrical gears. The main subareas are geometry, load capacity, gear noise, design process, quality assurance, materials, heat treatment, and manufacturing. Further topics covered are material selection, strength values, the creation of drawings as well as practical design examples. The used technical terms and standards are based on the internationally valid and applied ISO standards. This book provides the basis for practical calculations and detailed analyses. It addresses graduate engineers in research, development and manufacturing departments as well as students and postgraduates in mechanical and plant engineering, as well as in automotive, aerospace and marine engineering. System requirements for e-book bonus: internet connection and Adobe Acrobat Reader, e-book reader or Adobe Digital Editions
The explosive increase in the world's human population, with conse quent need to feed an ever-increasing number of hungry mouths, and the largely resultant disturbances and pollution of the environment in which man must live and produce the things he needs, are forcing him to search for means of solving the first problem without intensifying the latter. Food production requires adequate assurance against the ravages of insects. In the last three decades short-sighted, unilateral and almost exclusive employment of synthesized chemicals for insect pest control has posed an enormous and as yet unfathomed contribution to the degradation of our environment, while our insect pest problems seem greater than ever. Properly viewed, pest control is basically a question of applied ecology, yet its practice has long been conducted with little regard to real necessity for control, and in some cases, with little regard to various detrimental side-effects or long-term advantage with respect, even, to the specific crop itself. This book deals fundamentally with these questions. The development of pesticide resistance in many of the target species, against which the pesticides are directed, has occasioned an ever-increasing load of applications and complexes of different kinds of highly toxic materials. This has been made even more 'necessary' as the destruction of natural enemies has resulted, as a side effect, in the rise to pest status of many species that were formerly innocuous. The application of broad-spec trum pesticides thus has many serious and self-defeating features.
Most current methods for product verification and reliability assurance are based upon statistical sample sizes and the underlying probability distributions. But that approach typically results in industrially unmanageable sample sizes and high test resource requirements. The proposed approach in this thesis uses a generalized 'Inverse Most-Probable-Limit State' concept, which takes a Monte-Carlo based most likely noise factor scenario in all load dimensions into account for each failure mode.