A breech-loading weapon is a firearm in which the bullet or shell is inserted or loaded at the rear of the barrel, or breech, the opposite of muzzle-loading. Modern mass production firearms are breech-loading. Early firearms were almost entirely muzzle-loading. The main advantage of breech-loading is a reduction in reloading time, it is much quicker to load the projectile and charge into the breech than to force them down a long tube, especially when the tube has spiral ridges from rifling. In field artillery, breech loading allows the crew to reload the weapon without exposing themselves to enemy fire or repositioning the piece and it allows turrets and emplacements to be smaller
Gun laying is the process of aiming an artillery piece. The term is also applied to describe the process of aiming smaller calibre weapons by radar or computer control. The gun is typically traversed, rotated in a horizontal plane in order to gain a line of sight to the target, and elevated, moved in the vertical plane, to range it to the target.Vertical alignment is necessary to compensate for the vertical profile trajectory of the shot from the point it leaves the muzzle to the point where it encounters its target. There are two possible paths that a shot can take to a target at a defined range. The lower, rising, trajectory is known as grazing fire or direct fire, and the higher, falling, trajectory is plunging fireIn some gun mountings it is also possible to depress the gun, that is to move it in the vertical plane to point it below the horizontal, to fire down at a target. Such a facility is only of relevance if the gun is higher than its target, though in some muzzle loading guns, the gun must be depressed to load it. These movements, and the mechanism to handle the recoil of the gun, are provided by the gun mounting.
The arquebus (sometimes spelled harquebus, harkbus or hackbut, from Dutch haakbus, meaning "hook gun") is an early muzzle-loaded firearm used in the 15th to 17th centuries. The word was originally modelled on the German: Hackenbüche, this produced haquebute. It then copied the Italian word: archibugio, which gave arquebuse (French), arcabuz (Spanish) and arquebus (English). In distinction from its predecessor, the hand cannon, it has a matchlock. Like its successor, the musket, it is a smoothbore firearm, but it is lighter and easier to carry. It is a forerunner of the rifle and other longarm firearms. An improved version of the arquebus, the caliver, was introduced in the early 1500s. The word is derived from the English corruption of calibre as this gun was of standard bore, increasing combat effectiveness as troops could load bullets that would fit their guns (before, they would have to modify shot to fit, force it in or cast their own before the battle). Heavy arquebuses mounted on wagons were called arquebus à croc. These carried a ball of about 3.5 ounces.
The .338 Lapua Magnum (8.6x70mm or 8.58x70mm) is a specialized rimless bottlenecked centerfire cartridge developed for military long-range sniper rifles. The Afghanistan War and Iraq War made it a combat-proven round with ready and substantial ammunition availability. The .338 Lapua is a dual-purpose anti-personnel and anti-materiel round, however, its anti-materiel potential is limited, due to the bullet's lower kinetic energy compared with that of the .50 BMG's 35.64 to 55.08 gram (550 to 850 grain) projectiles. The loaded cartridge is 14.93 mm (0.5878 in) in diameter (rim) and 93.5 mm long. It can penetrate better-than-standard military body armour at ranges up to 1,000 metres (1,094 yd) and has a maximum effective range of about 1,750 metres (1,910 yd). Muzzle velocity is dependent on load and powder temperature and varies from 880 to 915 m/s (2,900 to 3,000 ft/s) for commercial loads with 16.2 gram (250 grain) bullets, which results in about 6525 joules (4813 ft·lbf) of muzzle energy. In addition to its military role, it is increasingly used by hunters and civilian long-range shooting enthusiasts.
A water gun (or water pistol, squirt gun, or water blaster) is a type of toy designed to shoot water. Similar to water balloons, the primary purpose of the toy is to soak another person in a game such as water warfare.Historically, water guns were made of metal and used rubber squeeze bulbs to load and propel water through a nozzle.Traditionally, water guns have worked on the same principle as a spray bottle. The body is essentially a container for water and the trigger is attached to a pump which squirts water out of a tiny hole at the muzzle or nozzle. However, many modern water guns employ more complex technologies to provide more power and water output than their predecessors. Modern variations may employ compressed air, rubber chambers, springs, peristaltic pumps, or hydraulic pressure to propel the water. Some even use an electric pump powered by batteries. Some employ a combination of technologies to produce better stream performance. A common term for large high pressure water guns is "water blasters".