Earthquakes are a way of life on Earth, and, whether you live in an area that is often affected by earthquakes or not, every building, every road, every bridge, and, in fact, almost everything constructed by humans in which we walk, sleep, live, sit, or visit, has to be constructed to withstand an earthquake, by following local, regional, or national codes, laws, and regulations. Further to this, the science and engineering behind these constructions go further than what is mandated by government as a part of their practice. All construction, and, in general, all life on Earth, has some risk of seismic impacts. A comprehensive description of any seismic action may be given only on a probabilistic basis and, in general, is very bulky and quite uncertain. However, for a variety of structures or systems that meet fairly simple models of behavior during earthquakes, a general description of the seismic action is not required, for prediction of the status of such facilities or systems may be sufficient to define one or more common parameters of seismic impact. Thus, it makes sense to search for optimal parameters of influence in which optimality is understood with the greatest ease with sufficient information. This book contains a description of several models of seismic effects and examples of implementation of these models at specific sites. Using this information, scientists and engineers can design structures that are stronger, safer, and longer-lasting. It is a must-have for any scientist, engineer, or student working in or researching seismic loads and constructions with a view toward withstanding seismic activity.
This book explores robust multimodal cognitive load measurement with physiological and behavioural modalities, which involve the eye, Galvanic Skin Response, speech, language, pen input, mouse movement and multimodality fusions. Factors including stress, trust, and environmental factors such as illumination are discussed regarding their implications for cognitive load measurement. Furthermore, dynamic workload adjustment and real-time cognitive load measurement with data streaming are presented in order to make cognitive load measurement accessible by more widespread applications and users. Finally, application examples are reviewed demonstrating the feasibility of multimodal cognitive load measurement in practical applications. This is the first book of its kind to systematically introduce various computational methods for automatic and real-time cognitive load measurement and by doing so moves the practical application of cognitive load measurement from the domain of the computer scientist and psychologist to more general end-users, ready for widespread implementation. Robust Multimodal Cognitive Load Measurement is intended for researchers and practitioners involved with cognitive load studies and communities within the computer, cognitive, and social sciences. The book will especially benefit researchers in areas like behaviour analysis, social analytics, human-computer interaction (HCI), intelligent information processing, and decision support systems.
Introduction to Aircraft Aeroelasticity and Loads, Second Edition is an updated new edition offering comprehensive coverage of the main principles of aircraft aeroelasticity and loads. For ease of reference, the book is divided into three parts and begins by reviewing the underlying disciplines of vibrations, aerodynamics, loads and control, and then goes on to describe simplified models to illustrate aeroelastic behaviour and aircraft response and loads for the flexible aircraft before introducing some more advanced methodologies. Finally, it explains how industrial certification requirements for aeroelasticity and loads may be met and relates these to the earlier theoretical approaches used. Key features of this new edition include: Uses a unified simple aeroelastic model throughout the book Major revisions to chapters on aeroelasticity Updates and reorganisation of chapters involving Finite Elements Some reorganisation of loads material Updates on certification requirements Accompanied by a website containing a solutions manual, and MATLAB® and SIMULINK® programs that relate to the models used For instructors who recommend this textbook, a series of lecture slides are also available Introduction to Aircraft Aeroelasticity and Loads, Second Edition is a must-have reference for researchers and practitioners working in the aeroelasticity and loads fields, and is also an excellent textbook for senior undergraduate and graduate students in aerospace engineering.
In the subject of power systems, authors felt that a re-look is necessary at some conventional methods of analysis. In this book, the authors have subjected the time-honoured load flow to a close scrutiny. Authors have discovered and discussed a new load flow procedure - Modular Load Flow. Modular Load Flow explores use of power - a scalar - as source for electrical circuits which are conventionally analysed by means of phasors - the ac voltages or currents. The method embeds Kirchhoffs circuit laws as topological property into its scalar equations and results in a unique wonderland where phase angles do not exist! Generators are shown to have their own worlds which can be superimposed to obtain the state of the composite power system. The treatment is useful in restructured power systems where stakeholders and the system operators may desire to know individual generator contributions in line flows and line losses for commercial reasons. Solution in Modular Load Flow consists of explicit expressions which are applicable with equal ease to well-conditioned, ill-conditioned and very low voltage situations. It is found to be computationally much faster than the iterative load flows and indicates promise for online application. Indian blackouts of July 30 and 31, 2012 are analysed using an equivalent grid network to indicate its utility. Besides its ability to deal with ground reality in power systems, Modular Load Flow points to a theory that unveils interesting mathematical structures which should entice avid researchers. Second author has had first author as teacher and third author as student. The lecture notes therefore reflect ethos of three generations of teachers. Prof. M.V. Hariharan is Gold Medal awardee for his performance in B.Tech in the entire state of Madras (1954) and a UNESCO scholar (1959). He has been a popular faculty at IIT Bombay, Mumbai (1962 - 93) and is known for his down-to-earth teaching methods. He has been Visiting Professor at University of Manitoba, Canada (1987) and at University of Western Ontario London, Canada (1988). He was consultant to Tata Consulting Engineers, Maharashtra State Electricity Board, now restructured as Mahagenco (MSPGCL), Mahatransco (MSETCL) and Mahadiscom (MSEDCL). Prof. Hariharan has carried out research projects for Department of Science and Technology, India and has published papers in international journals. He has guided many PhD students. Prof. S.D. Varwandkar , PhD (IIT Kanpur, India) was faculty at VJTI, Mumbai (1969 - 2004) and has taught courses on Electrical Machines, Power System Analysis, and Planning and Reforms and has published in international journals and guided three PhD students. He has carried out projects for Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences, India and was Expert Consultant at Global R & D, Crompton Greaves, Mumbai (2007 - 08). Ms. Pragati P. Gupta topped in BE among all branches of Engineering at Dibrugarh University in 1991 and in M.Tech (Power Systems) at VJTI. She is currently Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering at VJTI and is associated with teaching of courses in Power Systems, especially Deregulated Systems.
This book offers a comprehensive overview of current challenges and strategies to regenerate load-bearing and calcified human tissues, including bone, cartilage,tendon, ligaments and dental structures (dentin, enamel, cementum and periodontal ligament). Tissue engineering has long held great promises as an improved treatment option for conditions affecting mineralized and load-bearing structures in the body. Although significant progress has been achieved in recent years, a number of challenges still exist. Scaffold vascularization, new biofabrication methods (3D printing, lithography, microfabrication), peptide conjugation methods, interface engineering, scaffold mechanical properties, iPS cells, organs-on-a-chip, are some of the topics discussed in this book. More specially, in the first section readers will find an overview of emerging biofabrication methods. In section 2, applied strategies for regeneration of (2.1) bone, cartilage and ligament, as well as (2.2) dentin, cementum, enamel and periodontal ligament are discussed across 14 chapters. While other volumes have addressed the regeneration of individual tissues, or exclusively focused on different regenerative strategies, the focus of this work is to bring together researchers integrating backgrounds in materials sciences, engineering, biology, mechanics, fluidics, etc, to address specific challenges common to regeneration of several load-bearing and calcified tissues. Therefore, this book provides a unique platform to stimulate progress in the regeneration of functional tissue substitutes. We envision that this book will represent a valuable reference source for university and college faculties, post-doctoral research fellows, senior graduate students, and researchers from R&D laboratories in their endeavors to fabricate biomimetic load bearing tissues.
Wave Mechanics and Wave Loads on Marine Structures provides a new perspective on the calculation of wave forces on ocean structures, unifying the deterministic and probabilistic approaches to wave theory and combining the methods used in field and experimental measurement. Presenting his quasi-determinism (QD) theory and approach of using small-scale field experiments (SSFEs), author Paolo Boccotti simplifies the findings and techniques honed in his ground-breaking work to provide engineers and researchers with practical new methods of analysis. Including numerous worked examples and case studies, Wave Mechanics and Wave Loads on Marine Structures also discusses and provides useful FORTRAN programs, including a subroutine for calculating particle velocity and acceleration in wave groups, and programs for calculating wave loads on several kinds of structures. Solves the conceptual separation of deterministic and stochastic approaches to wave theory seen in other resources through the application of quasi-determinism (QD) theory Combines the distinct experimental activities of field measurements and wave tank experiment using small-scale field experiments (SSFEs) Simplifies and applies the ground-breaking work and techniques of this leading expert in wave theory and marine construction
Seminar paper from the year 2013 in the subject Computer Science - Commercial Information Technology, grade: 1.0, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg (Faculty of Computer Science), course: Recent Topics in Business Informatics, language: English, abstract: Energy efficiency has a rising importance throughout society. With the growth of large data centers, the energy consumption becomes centralized and nowadays takes a significant amount of the overall electricity consumption of a country. Load balancing algorithms are able to make an existing infrastructure more efficient without major drawbacks. This structured literature research presents the state of the art technology regarding the load balancing approach to make data centers more en-ergy efficient. The state of the art approaches are reviewed for techniques, im-provements and consideration of performance effects.
Load-Bearing Fibre Composites
Heating and Cooling Load Calculations is a handbook that covers various concerns in calculating heating and cooling. The title provides a logical study of the physical and engineering factors that affect the heating and cooling load. The coverage of the text includes heat transfer; heating loads and its reduction; and design temperature conditions. The text also covers the cooling design conditions and the components of cooling load and its reduction. The book will be of great use to both student and professional engineers.
Understanding the fatigue behaviour of structural components under variable load amplitude is an essential prerequisite for safe and reliable light-weight design. For designing and dimensioning, the expected stress (load) is compared with the capacity to withstand loads (fatigue strength). In this process, the safety necessary for each particular application must be ensured. A prerequisite for ensuring the required fatigue strength is a reliable load assumption. The authors describe the transformation of the stress- and load-time functions which have been measured under operational conditions to spectra or matrices with the application of counting methods. The aspects which must be considered for ensuring a reliable load assumption for designing and dimensioning are discussed in detail. Furthermore, the theoretical background for estimating the fatigue life of structural components is explained, and the procedures are discussed for numerous applications in practice. One of the prime intentions of the authors is to provide recommendations which can be implemented in practical applications. The authors are experienced engineers in the automotive industry / at a German Technical University.