Earthquakes are a way of life on Earth, and, whether you live in an area that is often affected by earthquakes or not, every building, every road, every bridge, and, in fact, almost everything constructed by humans in which we walk, sleep, live, sit, or visit, has to be constructed to withstand an earthquake, by following local, regional, or national codes, laws, and regulations. Further to this, the science and engineering behind these constructions go further than what is mandated by government as a part of their practice. All construction, and, in general, all life on Earth, has some risk of seismic impacts. A comprehensive description of any seismic action may be given only on a probabilistic basis and, in general, is very bulky and quite uncertain. However, for a variety of structures or systems that meet fairly simple models of behavior during earthquakes, a general description of the seismic action is not required, for prediction of the status of such facilities or systems may be sufficient to define one or more common parameters of seismic impact. Thus, it makes sense to search for optimal parameters of influence in which optimality is understood with the greatest ease with sufficient information. This book contains a description of several models of seismic effects and examples of implementation of these models at specific sites. Using this information, scientists and engineers can design structures that are stronger, safer, and longer-lasting. It is a must-have for any scientist, engineer, or student working in or researching seismic loads and constructions with a view toward withstanding seismic activity.
Introduction to Aircraft Aeroelasticity and Loads, Second Edition is an updated new edition offering comprehensive coverage of the main principles of aircraft aeroelasticity and loads. For ease of reference, the book is divided into three parts and begins by reviewing the underlying disciplines of vibrations, aerodynamics, loads and control, and then goes on to describe simplified models to illustrate aeroelastic behaviour and aircraft response and loads for the flexible aircraft before introducing some more advanced methodologies. Finally, it explains how industrial certification requirements for aeroelasticity and loads may be met and relates these to the earlier theoretical approaches used. Key features of this new edition include: Uses a unified simple aeroelastic model throughout the book Major revisions to chapters on aeroelasticity Updates and reorganisation of chapters involving Finite Elements Some reorganisation of loads material Updates on certification requirements Accompanied by a website containing a solutions manual, and MATLAB® and SIMULINK® programs that relate to the models used For instructors who recommend this textbook, a series of lecture slides are also available Introduction to Aircraft Aeroelasticity and Loads, Second Edition is a must-have reference for researchers and practitioners working in the aeroelasticity and loads fields, and is also an excellent textbook for senior undergraduate and graduate students in aerospace engineering.
This book explores robust multimodal cognitive load measurement with physiological and behavioural modalities, which involve the eye, Galvanic Skin Response, speech, language, pen input, mouse movement and multimodality fusions. Factors including stress, trust, and environmental factors such as illumination are discussed regarding their implications for cognitive load measurement. Furthermore, dynamic workload adjustment and real-time cognitive load measurement with data streaming are presented in order to make cognitive load measurement accessible by more widespread applications and users. Finally, application examples are reviewed demonstrating the feasibility of multimodal cognitive load measurement in practical applications. This is the first book of its kind to systematically introduce various computational methods for automatic and real-time cognitive load measurement and by doing so moves the practical application of cognitive load measurement from the domain of the computer scientist and psychologist to more general end-users, ready for widespread implementation. Robust Multimodal Cognitive Load Measurement is intended for researchers and practitioners involved with cognitive load studies and communities within the computer, cognitive, and social sciences. The book will especially benefit researchers in areas like behaviour analysis, social analytics, human-computer interaction (HCI), intelligent information processing, and decision support systems.
This book offers a comprehensive overview of current challenges and strategies to regenerate load-bearing and calcified human tissues, including bone, cartilage,tendon, ligaments and dental structures (dentin, enamel, cementum and periodontal ligament). Tissue engineering has long held great promises as an improved treatment option for conditions affecting mineralized and load-bearing structures in the body. Although significant progress has been achieved in recent years, a number of challenges still exist. Scaffold vascularization, new biofabrication methods (3D printing, lithography, microfabrication), peptide conjugation methods, interface engineering, scaffold mechanical properties, iPS cells, organs-on-a-chip, are some of the topics discussed in this book. More specially, in the first section readers will find an overview of emerging biofabrication methods. In section 2, applied strategies for regeneration of (2.1) bone, cartilage and ligament, as well as (2.2) dentin, cementum, enamel and periodontal ligament are discussed across 14 chapters. While other volumes have addressed the regeneration of individual tissues, or exclusively focused on different regenerative strategies, the focus of this work is to bring together researchers integrating backgrounds in materials sciences, engineering, biology, mechanics, fluidics, etc, to address specific challenges common to regeneration of several load-bearing and calcified tissues. Therefore, this book provides a unique platform to stimulate progress in the regeneration of functional tissue substitutes. We envision that this book will represent a valuable reference source for university and college faculties, post-doctoral research fellows, senior graduate students, and researchers from R&D laboratories in their endeavors to fabricate biomimetic load bearing tissues.
In the subject of power systems, authors felt that a re-look is necessary at some conventional methods of analysis. In this book, the authors have subjected the time-honoured load flow to a close scrutiny. Authors have discovered and discussed a new load flow procedure - Modular Load Flow. Modular Load Flow explores use of power - a scalar - as source for electrical circuits which are conventionally analysed by means of phasors - the ac voltages or currents. The method embeds Kirchhoffs circuit laws as topological property into its scalar equations and results in a unique wonderland where phase angles do not exist! Generators are shown to have their own worlds which can be superimposed to obtain the state of the composite power system. The treatment is useful in restructured power systems where stakeholders and the system operators may desire to know individual generator contributions in line flows and line losses for commercial reasons. Solution in Modular Load Flow consists of explicit expressions which are applicable with equal ease to well-conditioned, ill-conditioned and very low voltage situations. It is found to be computationally much faster than the iterative load flows and indicates promise for online application. Indian blackouts of July 30 and 31, 2012 are analysed using an equivalent grid network to indicate its utility. Besides its ability to deal with ground reality in power systems, Modular Load Flow points to a theory that unveils interesting mathematical structures which should entice avid researchers. Second author has had first author as teacher and third author as student. The lecture notes therefore reflect ethos of three generations of teachers. Prof. M.V. Hariharan is Gold Medal awardee for his performance in B.Tech in the entire state of Madras (1954) and a UNESCO scholar (1959). He has been a popular faculty at IIT Bombay, Mumbai (1962 - 93) and is known for his down-to-earth teaching methods. He has been Visiting Professor at University of Manitoba, Canada (1987) and at University of Western Ontario London, Canada (1988). He was consultant to Tata Consulting Engineers, Maharashtra State Electricity Board, now restructured as Mahagenco (MSPGCL), Mahatransco (MSETCL) and Mahadiscom (MSEDCL). Prof. Hariharan has carried out research projects for Department of Science and Technology, India and has published papers in international journals. He has guided many PhD students. Prof. S.D. Varwandkar , PhD (IIT Kanpur, India) was faculty at VJTI, Mumbai (1969 - 2004) and has taught courses on Electrical Machines, Power System Analysis, and Planning and Reforms and has published in international journals and guided three PhD students. He has carried out projects for Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences, India and was Expert Consultant at Global R & D, Crompton Greaves, Mumbai (2007 - 08). Ms. Pragati P. Gupta topped in BE among all branches of Engineering at Dibrugarh University in 1991 and in M.Tech (Power Systems) at VJTI. She is currently Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering at VJTI and is associated with teaching of courses in Power Systems, especially Deregulated Systems.
Seminar paper from the year 2013 in the subject Computer Science - Commercial Information Technology, grade: 1.0, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg (Faculty of Computer Science), course: Recent Topics in Business Informatics, language: English, abstract: Energy efficiency has a rising importance throughout society. With the growth of large data centers, the energy consumption becomes centralized and nowadays takes a significant amount of the overall electricity consumption of a country. Load balancing algorithms are able to make an existing infrastructure more efficient without major drawbacks. This structured literature research presents the state of the art technology regarding the load balancing approach to make data centers more en-ergy efficient. The state of the art approaches are reviewed for techniques, im-provements and consideration of performance effects.
This book presents a study for the determination of environmental load factors for Jacket Platforms in Malaysia and a methodology to determine the life extension of aging platforms. The simplified methods described here could be used for determining not only structural reliability but also safety factors. Its content is particularly interesting to design and maintenance engineers who are working in offshore or onshore industry. Zafarullah Nizamani is Assistant Professor at the Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Green Technology, Jalan University. He has more than 15 years experience as consultant and his research interests are in structural reliability, code calibration, Bayesian updating and fluid structure interaction.
This book provides state of the art coverage of important current issues in the analysis, measurement, and monitoring of the dynamic response of infrastructure to environmental loads, including those induced by earthquake motion and differential soil settlement. The coverage is in five parts that address numerical methods in structural dynamics, soil-structure interaction analysis, instrumentation and structural health monitoring, hybrid experimental mechanics, and structural health monitoring for bridges. Examples that give an impression of the scope of the topics discussed include the seismic analysis of bridges, soft computing in earthquake engineering, use of hybrid methods for soil-structure interaction analysis, effects of local site conditions on the inelastic dynamic analysis of bridges, embedded models in wireless sensor networks for structural health monitoring, recent developments in seismic simulation methods, and seismic performance assessment and retrofit of structures. Throughout, the emphasis is on the most significant recent advances and new material. The book comprises extended versions of contributions delivered at the DE-GRIE Lab Workshop 2014, held in Thessaloniki, Greece, in November 2014.
This book introduces electric circuits with variable loads and voltage regulators. It allows to define invariant relationships for various parameters of regime and circuit sections and to prove the concepts characterizing these circuits. Generalized equivalent circuits are introduced. Projective geometry is used for the interpretation of changes of operating regime parameters. Expressions of normalized regime parameters and their changes are presented. Convenient formulas for the calculation of currents are given. Parallel voltage sources and the cascade connection of multi-port networks are described. The two-value voltage regulation characteristics of loads with limited power of voltage source is considered. The book presents the fundamentals of electric circuits and develops circuit theorems. It is useful to engineers, researchers and graduate students who are interested in the basic electric circuit theory and the regulation and monitoring of power supply systems. A. Penin was born in 1952. He graduated from Radio Department Polytechnic Institute in 1974, Odessa, Ukraine. His engineering interest relates to power electronics. Between 1980 and 2006 he worked in the design office of solid-state electronics of Academy of Sciences of Moldova; the elaboration of power supply systems. Ever since 2006 he has been working in the Institute of Electronic Engineering and Nanotechnologies of Academy of Sciences of Moldova; he continues the early begun, 70-th years, the independent theoretical researches in the electric circuit theory with variable regimes. He is a senior research assistant, PhD (2011).
A comprehensive review of state-of-the-art approaches to power systems forecasting from the most respected names in the field, internationally Advances in Electric Power and Energy Systems is the first book devoted exclusively to a subject of increasing urgency to power systems planning and operations. Written for practicing engineers, researchers, and post-grads concerned with power systems planning and forecasting, this book brings together contributions from many of the worlds foremost names in the field who address a range of critical issues, from forecasting power system load to power system pricing to post-storm service restoration times, river flow forecasting, and more. In a time of ever-increasing energy demands, mounting concerns over the environmental impacts of power generation, and the emergence of new, smart-grid technologies, electricity price forecasting has assumed a prominent role within both the academic and industrial arenas. Short-run forecasting of electricity prices has become necessary for power generation unit schedule, since it is the basis of every maximization strategy. This book fills a gap in the literature on this increasingly important topic. Following an introductory chapter offering background information necessary for a full understanding of the forecasting issues covered, this book: Introduces advanced methods of time series forecasting, as well as neural networks Provides in-depth coverage of state-of-the-art power system load forecasting and electricity price forecasting Addresses river flow forecasting based on autonomous neural network models Deals with price forecasting in a competitive market Includes estimation of post-storm restoration times for electric power distribution systems Features contributions from world-renowned experts sharing their insights and expertise in a series of self-contained chapters Advances in Electric Power and Energy Systems is a valuable resource for practicing engineers, regulators, planners, and consultants working in or concerned with the electric power industry. It is also a must read for senior undergraduates, graduate students, and researchers involved in power system planning and operation. Mohamed E. El-Hawary, PhD is Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Dalhousie University. He is also the editor for the IEEE Press Power Engineering Series. His contributions to electrical engineering research, education, and industry cover more than forty years. His pioneering work in the economic operation of power systems and the application of computational intelligence techniques to power system operational problems has been cited in numerous textbooks and research monographs and more than 300 research articles. He has published multiple books with Wiley, including Principles of Electric Machines with Power Electronic Applications, 2 nd Edition , and Introduction to Electrical Power Systems .